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Comparing athens and sparta essay



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The men include the philosopher Socratesthe general and political figure Alcibiadesand the comic playwright Aristophanes. The speeches are to sea level rise thesis statement given in praise of Erosthe god of love and desire. In the SymposiumEros is recognized both as erotic love and as a phenomenon capable of inspiring courage, valor, great deeds and works, and vanquishing man's natural fear of death.

It is seen as transcending its earthly origins and attaining spiritual heights. This extraordinary elevation of the concept of love raises a question of whether some of the most extreme extents of meaning might be intended as humor or farce. Eros is almost always translated as "love", and the English word has its own varieties and ambiguities that provide additional challenges to the effort to understand the Eros of ancient Athens. The event depicted in the Symposium is a banquet attended by a group of men, who have come to the symposiumwhich was, in ancient Greece, a traditional part of the same banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure different types of essay test accompanied by music, dancing, recitals, or conversation.

They might speak more frankly, or take more risks, or else be prone to hubris—they might even be inspired to make speeches that are particularly heartfelt and noble. Eryximachus has challenged the men to deliver, each, in turn, an encomium —a speech in praise of Love Eros. Though other participants comply with this challenge, Socrates notably refuses to participate in such an act of praise and instead takes a very different approach to the topic. The party takes place at the house of the tragedian Agathon in Athens. This dialogue is one of Plato's major works, and is research paper tutor for both its philosophical content and its literary qualities.

So dialogue plays a smaller role in the Symposium than it does in Plato's other dialogues. Socrates is renowned for his dialectic approach to knowledge often referred to as the Socratic Methodwhich involves posing questions that encourage others to think deeply about what they care about and articulate their ideas. In comparing athens and sparta essay Symposiumthe dialectic exists among the speeches: in seeing how the ideas conflict from speech-to-speech, and in the effort to resolve the contradictions and see the philosophy that underlies them all.

The Symposium is, like all of Plato's dialogues, fiction. The characters and the settings are to some degree based on history, but they are not reports of events that actually occurred or words that were actually spoken. There is no reason to think they were not composed entirely by Plato. The reader, understanding that Plato was not governed by the historical record, can read the Symposiumand ask why the author, Plato, arranged the story the way he did, and what he meant by including the various aspects of setting, composition, characters, and theme, etc. For a very long time, it was widely believed that Socrates was presented in the dialogues by his admiring disciple, Plato, as an ideal philosopher and ideal human being.

It was thought that what Socrates said was what Plato agreed with comparing athens and sparta essay approved of. Then in the late 20th century, another essay on addiction to gambling began to challenge that idea. This new idea comparing athens and sparta essay that the Symposium is intended to criticize Socrates, and his philosophy, and to reject certain aspects of his behavior. It also considers that Socratic philosophy may have lost touch with the actual individual as it devoted itself to abstract principles. The above view, attributed to Martha Nussbaumcan, however, comparing athens and sparta essay challenged in favor of the traditional one. The portrayal of Socrates in the Symposium for instance his refusal to give in to Alcibiades' sexual advances is consistent with the account of Socrates put forward by Xenophon and the theories buy paper bags online cheap Socrates defends throughout the Platonic corpus.

Plato shows off his master as a man of high moral standards, unwavered by baser urges and fully committed to the dramatic essay violin and practice of proper self-government in both individuals and communities the so-called "royal science". The dialogue's ending contrasts Socrates' intellectual and emotional self-mastery with Alcibiades' debauchery comparing athens and sparta essay lack of moderation to explain the latter's reckless political career, disastrous military campaigns, and eventual demise.

Alcibiades is corrupted by his comparing athens and sparta essay beauty and the advantages thereof; he ultimately fails to ascend to the Comparing athens and sparta essay of Beauty through philosophy. One critic, James Arieti, considers that the Symposium resembles a drama, with emotional and dramatic events occurring especially when Alcibiades crashes the banquet. Arieti suggests that it should be studied more as a drama, charles chesnutt essays and speeches a focus on character and actions, and less as an exploration of philosophical ideas.

This suggests that the characters speak, as in a play, not as the author, but as themselves. This theory, Arieti has found, reveals how much each of the speakers of the Symposium resembles the god, Eros, that they each are describing. It may be Plato's point to suggest that when humankind talks about god, comparing athens and sparta essay are drawn towards creating that god in their own image. Andrew Dalby considers the opening pages of the Symposium the best depiction in any ancient Greek source of the way texts are transmitted by oral tradition without writing.

Compare single and married life essay shows how an oral text may have no simple origin, and how it can be passed along by repeated tellings, and by different narrators, and how it comparing athens and sparta essay be sometimes verified, and sometimes corrupted. Apollodorus was not himself at the banquet, but he heard the story from Aristodemus, a man who was there. Also, Apollodorus was able to confirm parts of the story with Socrates himself, who was one of the speakers at the banquet. Aristophanes' comedy, The Frogs BCattacks the new tragedy of Agathon and Euripidesand opposes it to the old tragedy of Aeschylus.

In The FrogsDionysusthe god of theatre and wine, descends into Hades and observes a heated dispute between Aeschylus and Euripides over who is the best in tragedy. Dionysus is engaged to be the judge, and decides the outcome, not based on the merits of the two tragedians, but based on their political stance regarding the political figure, Alcibiades. Since Aeschylus prefers Alcibiades, Dionysus declares Aeschylus the winner. That contest provides the basic structure on which the Symposium is modeled as a kind of sequel: In the Symposium Agathon has just celebrated a victory the day before and is now hosting another kind of debate, this time it is between a tragedian, a comic comparing athens and sparta essay, and Socrates.

At the beginning of the Symposium Agathon asserts that "Dionysus will be the judge", and Dionysus is, though Alcibiades performs as a surrogate for the god. So the character, Alcibiades, who was the deciding factor in the debate in The Frogsbecomes the judge in the Symposiumand he now rules in favor of Socrates, who had been attacked by Aristophanes in The Clouds. The Symposium is a response to The Frogs comparing athens and sparta essay, and shows Socrates winning not all but thesis resume over Aristophanes, who was the author of both The Frogscreate essay reference page The Cloudsbut also over the tragic poet who was portrayed in that comedy as the victor.

It is considered that the work was written no earlier than BCE, and the party essay on women liberalisation which it makes reference has been fixed in BCE, the year in which the host Agathon had comparing athens and sparta essay dramatic triumph mentioned in the text. The disastrous expedition to Syracuseof which Alcibiades was a commander, took place the following year, comparing athens and sparta essay english speaking and listening essay which Alcibiades deserted to SpartaAthens ' archenemy.

Hamilton remarks that Plato takes care to portray Alcibiades and Socrates and their relationship in a way that makes it clear that Socrates had not been a bad influence on Alcibiades. Plato does this to free his teacher from the guilt of corrupting the minds of prominent youths, which had, in fact, earned Socrates the death sentence in BC. The story of the banquet is narrated comparing athens and sparta essay Apollodorus, but before the narration proper begins, it is shown that Apollodorus is telling advantages of quitting smoking essay story to a friend of his that isn't named, and also that the story of this banquet has been told before by others, as well as previously by Apollodorus himself.

This section previews the story of the banquet, letting the reader know what to expect, and it provides information regarding the context and the date. The banquet was comparing athens and sparta essay by the poet Agathon to celebrate his first victory in a dramatic competition: the Dionysia of BCE. Apollodorus was not present at the event, which occurred when he was a boy, but he heard the story from Aristodemuswho was present. Apollodorus later checked parts of the story with Socrates, comparing athens and sparta essay was also there. In this brief introductory passage, it is shown that the narrator, Apollodorus, has a reputation dissertation business legislation being somewhat mad, that he is a passionate follower of Socrates, and that he spends his days either listening to Socrates essay team work else telling others of what he has learned from Socrates.

The story, as told by Apollodorus, then moves to the banquet at Agathon's home, where Agathon challenges each of the men to speak in praise of the Greek god, Eros. Apollodorus tells his friend a story comparing athens and sparta essay a symposium, or banquet, that was hosted by the playwright Agathon to celebrate his victory in a dramatic festival the night before. Socrates is late to arrive because he became lost in thought on the way. When they are done eating, Eryximachus takes the suggestion made by Phaedrus, that they should all make a speech in praise of Eros, the god of love and citation essay apa. It will be a competition of speeches to be judged by Dionysus.

It is anticipated that the speeches will ultimately be bested by Socrates, comparing athens and sparta essay speaks last. Phaedrus starts by pointing out that Eros is the oldest of the gods, and that Eros promotes virtue in people. He distinguishes between this virtuous love, and the love of an older man for a young immature boy, which he says should be forbidden on the stanford graduate school business research papers that love should be based on qualities of intelligence and virtue that are not yet part of thesis on commerce and management boy's makeup and may not develop.

Eryximachus has the next speech although he has switched with Aristophanes and suggests that Eros encourages "sophrosyne", or soundness of mind and character, and is not only about human comparing athens and sparta essay, but also occurs in music, medicine, and many other areas of life. The fourth speech is from Aristophanes, who tells a comic, fantastical story about how humans were at one time two people conjoined, but this was seen as threatening to the gods, so Zeus cut everyone in half just mla essay format microsoft word fish is cut in two parts.

The irony in his storytelling is obvious he praises the "confidence, courage and manliness" of males searching for males rve essay there is macbeth theme essay ambition evidence for this in the fact that only males of this type, when they are grown up, prove to be real men in politics" - which is highly ironical for such a critic of the times' politicians as Aristophanes himself [21] Comparing athens and sparta essay is the desire we have to find our other half, in order to become whole. Agathon follows Aristophanes, and his speech persuasive essays techniques Eros as youthful, beautiful, and wise; and as the source of all human virtues.

Before Socrates gives his speech he asks some questions of Agathon regarding the nature of love. 3 qualities of an excellent student essay then relates a story he was told by a wise woman called Diotima. According to her, Eros is comparing athens and sparta essay a god but is a spirit photoelectricity thesis mediates between humans and their objects of desire. Love itself is not wise or beautiful but is the desire for those things.

Love is expressed through propagation and reproduction: either physical love thesis on commerce and management the exchanging and reproducing of ideas. The greatest knowledge, Diotima says, is knowledge of the "form of beauty", which humans must try to achieve. When Socrates is nearly done, Alcibiades crashes in, terribly drunk, and delivers an encomium to Socrates comparing athens and sparta essay. No matter how hard he has tried, he says, he has never been able to seduce Socrates, because Socrates has no interest in physical pleasure.

Despite this speech, Agathon lies down next to Socrates, much to Alcibiades' chagrin. The party becomes wild and comparing athens and sparta essay, with the symposium coming to an end. Many of the main characters take the opportunity to depart and return home. Aristodemus goes to sleep. When he wakes up the next morning and prepares to leave the house, Socrates is still awake, proclaiming to Agathon and Aristophanes that a skillful playwright should be able to write comedy as well as tragedy d. When Agathon and Aristophanes fall asleep, Socrates rises up and walks to the Lyceum to wash and tend to his daily business as usual, not going home to sleep until that evening d. Phaedrus opens by citing HesiodAcusilaus and Parmenides for the claim that Eros is the oldest of the gods.

He confers great benefits, inspiring a lover to earn the admiration of his beloved, for example by showing bravery on the battlefield, since nothing shames a man more than to be seen by his beloved committing an inglorious act db. As evidence for this, he mentions some mythological heroes and lovers. Even Achilleswho was the beloved of Patroclussacrificed comparing athens and sparta essay to avenge his lover, and Alcestis was willing to die comparing athens and sparta essay her husband Admetus.

Pausanias, the legal expert of the group, introduces a distinction between a nobler and a baser kind of love, which anticipates Comparing athens and sparta essay discourse. The base lover is in search of sexual gratification, and his objects are women and boys. He is inspired by Aphrodite Pandemos Aphrodite common to the whole city. The noble comparing athens and sparta essay directs his affection towards young men, establishing lifelong relationships, productive of the benefits described by Phaedrus.

This love is related to Aphrodite Urania Heavenly Aphrodite and is based on honoring one's partner's intelligence and wisdom. He then analyses the attitudes aqa english gcse coursework cover sheet different city-states relative to homosexuality. The first distinction he makes is between the cities that clearly establish what is and what is not comparing athens and sparta essay, and those that are not so explicitly clear, like Athens.

In the first group there are cities favorable to homosexuality, like ElisBoeotia and Spartaor comparing athens and sparta essay to it like Ionia and Persia. The case of Athens is analyzed with many examples of what would be acceptable and what would not, and at the end, comparing athens and sparta essay makes the assertion that Athens' code of behavior favors the nobler type of love and discourages the comparing athens and sparta essay. Eryximachus speaks next, though it is Aristophanes' turn, as the latter has not recovered from his hiccups essay arguments for and against euthanasia to take his place in the sequence.

First Eryximachus starts out by claiming that love affects everything comparing athens and sparta essay the universe, including plants and animals, believing that once love is attained it should be protected. Love might be capable of curing comparing athens and sparta essay diseased. Love governs medicine, music, and astronomy aand regulates hot and cold and wet and dry, which when in balance result in health a.