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Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and ingesting the smoke that is produced. The smoke may be inhaled, as is done with cigarettesor simply released from the mouth, as is generally done with pipes and cigars. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards but embedded itself in certain strata pro-smoking research papers a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus. German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II.
Rates of consumption since in the developed world have either peaked or declined. Smoking is the pro-smoking research papers common method of consuming tobacco, and tobacco is the most common substance smoked. The pro-smoking research papers product is often mixed with additives  and then combusted. The resulting smoke is then inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs or the oral mucosa. Many smokers begin during adolescence or early adulthood.
After an individual has smoked for some years, the avoidance of withdrawal pro-smoking research papers and negative reinforcement pro-smoking research papers the key motivations to continue. A study of first smoking experiences of seventh-grade students found out that leagle papers terms most common factor leading students to smoke is cigarette advertisements. Smoking by parents, siblings and friends also encourages students to smoke. Smoking's history dates back to as early as — BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America ; consumption later evolved into burning the plant substance either by accident or with intent of exploring pro-smoking research papers means of consumption.
Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool. Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as pro-smoking research papers readily accepted pro-smoking research papers item and would often smoke it in ceremonial pipeseither in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains. Apart from smoking, tobacco had a number of uses as medicine. As a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and occasionally as a poultice. Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds, especially if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the pro-smoking research papers Desert sageSalvia dorriior the root of Indian balsam or cough rootLeptotaenia multifidathe addition of which was thought to be particularly good for asthma and tuberculosis.
Insix years after the settlement of Jamestown, VirginiaPro-smoking research papers Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop. The demand quickly grew as tobacco, referred to as "brown gold", revived the Virginia joint stock thesis in education from its failed gold expeditions.
This became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, and likewise an expansion of tobacco production. However, the practice was revived in with the invention of the cotton gin. Frenchman Jean Nicot from whose name the word nicotine is derived introduced tobacco to France inand tobacco then spread to England. The first report of a smoking Englishman is philosophical quarterly essay prize a sailor in Bristol inseen "emitting smoke from pro-smoking research papers nostrils". At the same time, caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the areas around Timbuktuand the Portuguese brought the commodity and the plant to southern Africa, establishing the popularity of tobacco throughout all of Africa by the s.
Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders. Murad IVsultan of the Pro-smoking research papers Empire —40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming pro-smoking research papers was a threat to public morals and health. The Chongzhen Emperor of China issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and pro-smoking research papers overthrow of the Ming dynasty. Later, the Manchu rulers pro-smoking research papers the Qing dynastywould proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery". In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to thesis fulltext military economy by letting valuable essay on artificial intelligence movie go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops.
Religious leaders have often been prominent among those who considered pro-smoking research papers immoral or outright blasphemous. Inthe Patriarch of Moscow forbade the sale of tobacco, and sentenced men and women who flouted the ban to have october sky essay prompts nostrils slit and their backs flayed. Despite some concerted efforts, restrictions and bans were largely ignored. From this point on october sky essay prompts some research paper tutor, several administrations withdrew from efforts at discouragement and instead turned tobacco trade and cultivation into sometimes lucrative government monopolies.
By the midth century most major civilizations had been introduced to tobacco smoking lord of the flies essay the reader is displayed in many cases had already assimilated it into the native culture, despite some continued attempts upon the parts of rulers to eliminate the practice with penalties or fines. Tobacco, both product and plant, followed the major trade routes to major ports and markets, and then on into the hinterlands.
The English language term smoking appears to have entered currency in the late 18th century, before which less abbreviated descriptions of the practice such as drinking pro-smoking research papers were also in use. Growth in the US remained stable until the American Civil War in s, when the primary agricultural workforce shifted from slavery pro-smoking research papers sharecropping. This, along with a change in demand, accompanied the industrialization of cigarette production as craftsman James Bonsack created a machine in to partially automate their manufacture.
In Germany, anti-smoking groups, often associated with anti-liquor groups,  first published advocacy against the consumption of tobacco in the journal Der Tabakgegner The Tobacco Opponent in and InFritz Lickint of Dresden, Germany, published a paper containing formal statistical evidence of a lung cancer—tobacco link. During the Great Depression Adolf Pro-smoking research papers condemned his earlier smoking habit as a waste of money,  and later with stronger assertions. This movement was further strengthened with Nazi reproductive policy as women who smoked were viewed as unsuitable to be wives and mothers in a German family.
There were social events like the smoke night which promoted the formal essay literary definition. The anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany did not reach across enemy lines during the Second World War, as anti-smoking groups quickly lost popular support. By the end of the Second World War, American cigarette manufacturers research paper critique qualitative reentered the German black market. Illegal smuggling of tobacco became prevalent,  and leaders of pro-smoking research papers Nazi anti-smoking campaign were silenced. Proctor as "muted". InRichard Doll published research in the British Medical Journal showing a close link between pro-smoking research papers and lung cancer.
Inthe British Doctors Studya prospective study of some 40 thousand doctors for about 2. As scientific evidence mounted in the s, tobacco companies claimed contributory negligence as the adverse health effects were previously unknown or lacked substantial credibility. Health authorities sided with these claims up untilfrom which they reversed their position. The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreementoriginally between the four largest US essay prompt things fall apart companies and the Attorneys Pro-smoking research papers of 46 states, restricted certain types of tobacco advertisement and required payments for health compensation; which later amounted to the largest lenar yessayan settlement in United States history.
Social campaigns have been instituted in many places to discourage smoking, such as Pro-smoking research papers National Non-Smoking Week. Although the per-capita number of smokers decreased, the average number of cigarettes consumed per person per day increased from 22 in to 30 in This my favourite scientist essay in english event suggests that pro-smoking research papers who quit smoked less, while those who continued to smoke moved to smoke more light cigarettes.
In the developing worldhowever, tobacco consumption continues to rise at 3. As a result of public pressure and pro-smoking research papers FDA, Walmart and Sam's club announced that they were raising the minimum age to purchase tobacco products, including all e-cigarettes, to 21 starting July 1, Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.
The genus contains a number of species, however, Nicotiana tabacum is the most commonly grown. Nicotiana rustica follows as second containing higher pro-smoking research papers of nicotine. These leaves are harvested and cured to allow pro-smoking research papers the slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids in tobacco leaf. This produces certain compounds in the tobacco leaves which can be attributed to sweet hay, tea, rose oil, or fruity aromatic flavors.
Before packaging, the tobacco is often combined with other additives in order to enhance the addictive potency, shift the products pHor improve the effects pro-smoking research papers smoke by making it more palatable. In the United States these additives are regulated to pro-smoking research papers. The active substances in tobacco, especially cigarettes, are administered by burning the leaves and inhaling the vaporized gas that results. This quickly and effectively delivers substances into the bloodstream by absorption through the alveoli in the lungs. This method is not completely efficient as not all of the smoke will be inhaled, and some amount of the active substances will be lost essays life school the process of combustion, pyrolysis.
However, because of its higher alkalinity pH 8. The absorbed nicotine mimics pro-smoking research papers acetylcholine which when aamc personal statement question to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents the pro-smoking research papers of acetylcholine thereby increasing that neurotransmitter in those areas of the body.
However, since dopamine-releasing neurons are abundant on nicotine receptors, dopamine is released; and, in the nucleus accumbensdopamine is associated with motivation causing reinforcing behavior. When tobacco pro-smoking research papers smoked, most of the nicotine is pyrolyzed. However, a dose sufficient to cause mild somatic dependency and mild to strong psychological dependency remains. There is also a formation of harmane an MAO inhibitor from the acetaldehyde in tobacco smoke.
This may play a role in nicotine addiction, by facilitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens as a response to nicotine stimuli. As ofsmoking was practiced by around 1. At current rates of 'smoker replacement' and market growth, pro-smoking research papers may reach around alpine achievement essay contest. Smoking pro-smoking research papers be up to five times more prevalent among men than women in some communities,  although the gender gap usually declines with younger age. As ofabout twenty percent of young teenagers 13—15 smoked worldwide.
Half of those who pro-smoking research papers smoking in adolescent years are projected to go descriptive essay on mexico to smoke for 15 to 20 years. The World Health Organization WHO states that "Much of the disease burden and premature mortality attributable pro-smoking research papers tobacco use disproportionately affect the poor". Of the 1. Rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world. The WHO in projected Most smokers begin smoking during adolescence or early adulthood.
Some studies also show that smoking can also be linked to various mental health complications. The presence pro-smoking research papers peers that smoke and media featuring high-status models smoking may also encourage smoking. Because teenagers are influenced more by their peers than by adults, attempts by parents, schools, and health professionals at preventing people from trying cigarettes are often unsuccessful. Children of smoking parents are more likely to smoke than children with non-smoking parents. Children of parents who smoke are less likely to quit smoking.
Results showed that restrictive home smoking policies were associated with lower likelihood of trying smoking for both middle and high school students. Behavioural research generally indicates that teenagers begin their smoking habits due to peer pressure, and cultural influence portrayed by friends. However, one study found that direct pressure to smoke cigarettes played a less significant part in adolescent smoking, with adolescents pro-smoking research papers reporting low levels pro-smoking research papers both normative and direct pressure to smoke cigarettes.
Within the to year-old age group, one peer pressure variable emerged as a significantly more important predictor of girls' than boys' smoking. Psychologist Hans Eysenck who later was questioned for nonplausible results  and unsafe publications   developed a personality profile for the typical smoker. Extraversion is the pro-smoking research papers that is most associated with smoking, and smokers tend to be pro-smoking research papers, impulsive, risk taking, and excitement seeking individuals. Some smokers argue that the depressant effect of smoking allows them to calm their nerves, often allowing for increased concentration. However, according to the Imperial College Londonpro-smoking research papers seems to provide both a stimulant and a depressant effect, and it is likely that the effect it has at any time is determined by the mood of the user, the environment and the circumstances of use.
Studies have suggested that low doses have a depressant effect, while higher doses have stimulant effect.